Veterans Education Success performs non-partisan, academic research and analysis of higher education policy issues that matter to military-connected students.  Below are our published reports.  We've also listed here some reports by government and other organizations that are particularly relevant.

VES Policy Reports

Research Report: Should Colleges Spend the GI Bill on Veterans’ Education or Late Night TV Ads? Which Colleges Deliver the Best Bang for the GI Bill Buck? (April 2019). Data here.

Issue Brief #9: Proposed Education Department Regulatory Changes Should Be Reevaluated Based on GI Bill Oversight Lessons (Feb. 2019)

Issue Brief #8: Veteran Student Loan Debt 7 Years After Implementation of the Post-9/11 GI Bill (Jan. 2019) (Data here)

Issue Brief #7: Could Education Corporation of America’s Sudden Closure Have Been Avoided? (Dec. 2018)

Research Report: Career Education Colleges and Universities (CECU): Student Outcomes at Selected Member Schools (Dec. 2018). (Data here)

Research Report: Postsecondary Non-Completion Among Veterans: Contributing Factors and Implications (Nov. 2018)

Issue Brief #6: Why Aren’t More Undergraduate Student Veterans Enrolling at Selective Colleges? Veteran Undergraduate vs Graduate Student Demographics (Nov. 2018)

Research Report: Is Trident University a Good Choice for Military-Connected Students? (Oct. 2018)

Issue Brief #5: Student Outcomes at Colleges Approved by the Accreditor ACICS (Oct. 2018)

After Action Report:  Veterans' Organizations Storm the Hill on PROSPER Act (June 2018) (click here)

Research Report:  Veteran Student Loan Debt Before and After the Post-9/11 GI Bill (May 2018)

Research Report: Despite a 2016 Statute, the GI Bill Still Pays for Degrees That Do Not Lead to a Job (April 2018)

Issue Brief #4: Large For-Profit Schools Remain Dependent on Recruiting GI Bill Students Despite Overall Enrollment Declines (April 2018)

Issue Brief #3: For-Profit Schools' Post-9/11 GI Bill Revenue and Enrollment Declined from 2014 to 2016 (April 2018)

Issue Brief #2: Schools Receiving the Most Post-9/11 GI Bill Tuition and Fee Payments Since 2009 (March 2018)

Research Report: Department of Education Data Shows Increased Targeting of Veterans and Servicemembers, Highlighting Urgency of Closing 90/10 Loophole (November 2017).  (Press Release here)

Research Report: Ashford's Fight to Maintain GI Bill Access Raises Questions About the Enforcement and Adequacy of Statutory Requirements (November 2017).

  • Press release here

  • A sampling of student veteran complaints about Ashford are here.

  • Report: Veteran and Servicemember Complaints about Misconduct and Illegal Practices at Ashford University (click here)

  • Fact Sheet: Enrollment Trends and Student Outcomes at Ashford University (click here)

Issue Brief #1: Repayment Status for First-Time Student Veterans 12 Years After Enrolling (Oct. 2017) (Press release here)

Research Report: Misleading Websites and "Lead Generators": A Case Study: Victory Media's "Military Friendly Schools" (Aug. 2016, updated Feb. 2017)

Policy Analysis: The ITT Collapse: Lessons Learned and Dealing with Future Challenges (Oct. 2016)

Legal Analysis: Yale Law School: VA's Failure to Protect Veterans from Deceptive College Recruiting Practices (2016)

Research Report: The GI Bill Pays for Degrees That Do Not Lead To a Job 20% of 300 programs approved for GI Bill don't meet to state licensing and certification requirements (Sept. 2015)

Policy Analysis: The Corinthian Sale: Lessons Learned & Dealing With Future Challenges (Feb. 2015)

Policy Analysis: Why For-Profit Institutions are targeting Veterans Education Benefits (Jan. 2014)

VES Legal Reports

Veteran and Servicemember Complaints about Misconduct and Illegal Practices at Trident International University (July 2018) (click here)

Law Enforcement Actions Against Predatory Colleges (Jan 2019)

Veteran and Servicemember Complaints about Misconduct and Illegal Practices at Ashford University (Dec. 2017) (click here

with Harvard Law School, Veteran and Servicemember Complaints about Misconduct and Illegal Practices at Kaplan Schools (Dec. 2017)

Veterans with Pending Borrower Defense Applications at the Education Department (Summer 2017)

Yale Law School, Student Veteran Complaints Alleging Illegal Practices at Colorado Technical University (May 2017)

Yale Law School, Student Veteran Complaints Alleging Illegal Practices at University of Phoenix (May 2017)

Trends in Veteran and Servicemember Student Complaints about DeVry University (Aug. 2016)

Trends in Veteran and Servicemember Student Complaints about ITT Technical Institute (May 2016)

VES Fact Sheets

Fact Sheet: Advice for Accreditors (Nov. 2018)

Fact Sheet: Proposed Borrower Defense Rule: Worse than 2016 for Military-Connected Students (side-by-side comparison) (Aug. 2018)

Fact Sheet: The Borrower Defense Rule and Its Importance to Veterans (December 2017)

Fact Sheet:  The Incentive Compensation Ban and Its Importance to Veterans (Jan. 2018)

Fact Sheet:  The Gainful Employment Rule and Its Importance to Veterans (December 2017) (Congress requires vocational education programs and for-profit degree programs to “prepare students for gainful employment in a recognized occupation,” in the definitions of eligibility for federal student aid, set forth in 20 U.S.C. § 1088(b)(1)(A)(I)), 20 U.S.C. § 1002(b)(1)(A)(i), and 20 U.S.C. § 1002(b)(c)(1)(A).

VES Civic Engagement Reports

Elevating Veterans’ Voices - After Action Report - 2018 Roundup (Dec. 2018) (click here)

Elevating Veterans' Voices - After Action Report - Winter-Spring 2018 (June 2018) (click here)

"Increasing College Success for Student Veterans and Today's Students," Student Veteran Panel Discussion (Feb. 22, 2018).

Elevating Veterans' Voices - After Action Report - Summer and Fall 2017 (Nov. 2017) (click here)

VES Staff Public Education Events - After Action Report - Winter-Spring 2018 (July 2018) (click here)

VES 2018 Year-End Report (Jan. 2019) (here). And shorter, Year-in-Brief (here).

Congressional Reports

U.S. Senators Dick Durbin and Elizabeth Warren: Insult to Injury: How the DeVos Department of Education is Failing Defrauded Students (Nov. 2017)

U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security & Government Affairs, Staff Report for Ranking Member Tom Carper, Education Denied: The Importance of Assisting Veterans Harmed by School Closures (Oct. 2016)

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions:  Is the New GI Bill Working?  For-Profit Colleges Increasing Veteran Enrollment and Federal Funds (2014)

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions:  Executive Summary: For Profit Higher Education: The Failure to Safeguard the Federal Investment and Ensure Student Success (2012)

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions:  For-Profit Higher Education: The Failure to Safeguard the Federal Investment & Ensure Student Success (2012)

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions:  PowerPoint Slides on GI Bill & For-Profit Colleges (2012)

U.S. Education Department Data on For-Profit Colleges' Violation of 90/10 Law

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions:  Recruiting Training Manuals from Top for-Profit Colleges (2012)

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions: Department of Defense Data Reveals For-Profit Colleges Are Taking in the Bulk of Military Education Benefits (2012)

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions:  Charts on Defense Department & For-Profit Colleges (2012)

U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions:  Benefitting Whom? For-Profit Education Companies and the Growth of Military Educational Benefits (2011)

U.S. Senate Permanent SubCommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs: Abuses in Federal Student Aid Programs (1991) 

U.S. Senate Committee on Veterans Affairs, Report to Accompany S.2784 Vietnam-Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974 (S. Rep. 907, 93d Congress) (1974) (see especially pages 71-72 and 126 re: 85-15 rule)

U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee to Investigate Educational, Training, and Loan Guaranty Programs Under the GI Bill:  Report: Investigating Educational and Training Programs Under GI Bill (1952) (H. Rep. 1375, 82d Congress) - led by "Mr. Veteran" Chairman Olin "Tiger" Teague

Defense Department Reports & Reports on DOD Tuition Assistance

U.S. Defense Department: Tuition Assistance and Military Spouse Career Advancement (2018)

U.S. Defense Department:  Credentialing Program Utilization (May 2018)

U.S. Defense Department:  DOD Voluntary Education Program Update (March 2017)

U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Actuary: Valuation of the Education Benefits Fund as of September 30, 2014 (Jan. 2016)

U.S. Department of Defense DOD introduces new Tuition Assistance Tool: TA DECIDE

Department of Veterans Affairs Reports

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of the Inspector General, VA’s Oversight of State Approving Agency Program Monitoring for Post-9/11 GI Bill Students (Dec. 3, 2018)

Annual reports by VA’s Veterans Benefits Administration on GI Bill usage and other benefits (click here for archive)

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Economic Communities Initiative Pilot: 2016 Report & Highlights (Jan. 2017)

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, The Veterans' Advisory Committee on Education: Recommendations (March 2016)

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs GI Bill Feedback System (VA's report on student complaints in FY 2014) (January 2015)

President’s Commission on Veterans’ Pensions, Omar Bradley, Chairman (known popularly as the “Bradley Commission”): Veterans Benefits in the United States (1956)

Department of Education Reports

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, “Military Service and Educational Attainment of High School Sophomores After 9/11: Experiences of 2002 High School Sophomores as of 2012” (Nov. 2018)

U.S. Department of Education, Federal Student Aid, "Federal Student Aid Feedback System Report" (Dec. 2017)

U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Inspector General, Federal Student Aid’s Borrower Defense to Repayment Loan Discharge Process (Dec. 2017)

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Repayment of Student Loans as of 2015 Among 1995–96 and 2003–04 First-Time Beginning Students (Oct. 2017) (finding for-profit colleges are twice as likely to produce students who default on their loans, at a rate of 52%)

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, A Profile of the Enrollment Patterns and Demographics of Undergraduates at For-Profit Institutions (March 2017)

U.S. Department of Education report on first 6 months of Education Dept's student complaint system: "Federal Student Aid Feedback System Preliminary Report" (Dec. 2016)

U.S. Department of Education Press Release: "Federal Agencies Enhance Collaboration to Support Veterans in Higher Education" (Nov. 2016)

U.S. Department of Education, New Analysis Finds Many For-Profit Colleges Skirt Federal Funding Limits: 90/10 Data Released (Dec. 2016). Data excel spreadsheet here.

U.S. Department of Education 90/10 data on colleges' abuse of GI Bill and DOD student funds (Dec. 2016)

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, A Profile of Military Undergraduates (statistics on military, veteran, and dependent college students) (July 2016)

U.S. Department of Education, Strengthening the Student Loan System to Better Protect All Borrowers (Oct. 2015) 

Other Government Reports

U.S. Department of Treasury:  A Financial System That Creates Economic Opportunities Nonbank Financials, Fintech, and Innovation: Report to President Donald J. Trump per Executive Order 13772 on Core Principles for Regulating the United States Financial System (Aug. 2018) (p. 127: "Treasury is concerned about schools that do not provide student loan borrowers good value, often leading to indebtedness the borrower cannot repay in a reasonable time period. Treasury supports legislative efforts to implement a risk-sharing program for institutions participating in the federal student loan program based on the amount of principal repaid following five years of payments. Schools whose students have systematically low loan repayment rates should be required to repay small amounts of federal dollars to protect taxpayers’ growing investment in the federal student loan program. Congress should consider how to address schools with systematically low repayment rates but large populations of disadvantaged students.")

U.S. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau:  What Does the Coast Guard Know About The GI Bill That Other Services Do Not? (Dec. 2017)

US Consumer Financial Protection Bureau:  A 50-State Look at Complaints About Student Loans (Oct. 2017)

US Consumer Financial Protection Bureau: Prepared Remarks of Seth Frotman, Assistant Director and Student Loan Ombudsman, Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School (Oct. 2017) (reporting 200,000 servicemembers currently collectively owe more than $2.9 billion in student debt)

US Commission on Evidence-Based Policymaking, Final Report: The Promise of Evidence-Based Policymaking (Sept. 2017)

US Congressional Research Service:  The Closure of Institutions of Higher Education:  Student Options, Borrower Defense, and Implications (June 2017)

Congressional Research Service:  An Overview of Accreditation of Higher Education in the U.S. (March 2017)

US Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, Office of Servicemember Affairs, Charting our Course Through the Military Life Cycle (May 2017)

U.S. Federal Trade Commission Staff Perspective on Lead Generation (deceptive websites that sell personal information) (Sept. 2016)

Congressional Research Service:  The Post-9/11 Veterans' Educational Assistance Act of 2008 (Post-9/11 GI Bill): A Primer (Sept. 2017)

Congressional Research Service: GI Bills Enacted Prior to 2008 and Related Veterans' Educational Assistance Programs: A Primer (Jan. 2016)

Non-Governmental Reports

The Century Foundation: How Much Education Are Students Getting For Their Tuition Dollar? Instructional Spending Tool here

New America Foundation: The Cautionary Tale of Correspondence Schools (Dec. 11, 2018)

Center for American Progress:  The 85 Colleges That Only ACICS Would Accredit (July 2018)

Third Way, Protecting Federal Dollars Flowing to New Short-Term Programs of Higher Education (June 2018)

Center for Responsible Lending: A Bitter Pill: Gainful Employment and Credentialism in Healthcare Support Fields: Findings from the Gainful Employment Data, Website Disclosures, and a Focus Group of For-Profit College Borrowers (June 2018) 

New America Foundation:  Decoding the Cost of College: The Case for Transparent Financial Aid Award Letters (June 2018)

Baird, Matthew (RAND Corporation), Michael Kofoed (US Military Academy), Trey Miller (RAND), and Jennie Wenger (RAND):  For-Profit Higher Education Responsiveness to Price Shocks: An Investigation of Changes in Post 9-11 GI Bill Allowed Maximum Tuitions (May 2018)

National College Access Network:  Defining College Affordability:  Shutting Low-Income Students Out of Public Four-Year Higher Education (May 2018)

The Century Foundation:  Background on Bogus Nonprofit Conversions (powerpoint slides), provided to the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (May 2018)

The Century Foundation & Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce:  Educational Adequacy in the Twenty-First Century (May 2018)

Third Way:  The Pell Divide:  How Four-Year Institutions are Failing to Graduate Low- and Moderate-Income Students (May 2018)

Swords to Plowshares: The Path Forward: What Universities Need to Know to Help Student Veterans Succeed (April 2018)

Urban Institute, Student Loan Debt in America: An Interactive Map (April 2018)

The Century Foundation:  Grading New York's Colleges (March 2018)

Brookings Institution: Gainfully employed?  New Evidence on the Earnings, Employment, and Debt of For-Profit Certificate Students (Feb. 2018).  Full paper available at Stephanie Cellini, Brookings Institution, and Nicholas Turner, Federal Reserve Board of Governors Senior Economist, Journal of Human ResourcesGainfully Employed? Assessing the Employment and Earnings of For-Profit College Students Using Administrative Data (Jan. 30. 2018).  PDF here.

Center for American Progress:  A Second Status Update on ACICS Colleges (Feb. 2018)

Children’s Advocacy Institute: Failing U: Do State Laws Protect Our Veterans and Other Students From For-Profit Postsecondary Predators? (Jan. 2018)

National Student Clearinghouse Research Center:  Current Term Enrollment Estimates - Fall 2017  (Dec. 2017)

Center for American Progress:  Who Are Student Loan Defaulters? (Dec. 2017)

The Century Foundation: Encouraging Innovation & Preventing Abuse in For-Profit Higher Education: A 2018 Toolkit for State Policy Makers (Dec. 2017)

Student Loan Borrower Assistance:  ED Turns 325,000 Student Loan Borrowers Over to Debt Collectors It Fired for Breaking the Law (Dec. 2017)

Higher Learning Advocates:  101: Postsecondary Data (Dec. 2017)

The Century Foundation:  Gainful Employment and for-profit college regulatory structure (Dec. 2017)

The Century Foundation:  College Complaints Unmasked: 99 Percent of Student Fraud Claims Concern For-Profit Colleges (Nov. 2017) (with collaboration from VES, profiles one of the veterans VES is assisting with Borrower Defense and other relief).  Also: Update: The Century Foundation: College Fraud Claims Up 29 Percent Since August 2017 (May 2018)

Third Way: How Well Does Our Higher Education System Serve Those Who Have Served Us? (Nov. 2017)

Third Way: GE By the Numbers:  How Students Fared at Programs Covered Under the Gainful Employment Rule (Sept. 2017)

State Higher Education Executive Officers Association, State Higher Education Finance: FY 2016 (analyzes state higher education funding) (2017)

Dan Rather, executive producer, Fail State:  A Documentary on Higher Education Failures (2017)

Raj Chetty, National Bureau of Economic Research, Mobility Report Cards: The Role of Colleges in Intergenerational Mobility (July 2017)

RAND: Are Current Military Education Benefits Efficient and Effective for the Services? (2017) 

US Public Interest Research Group, Protecting Those Who Serve: How the CFPB Safeguards Military Members and Veterans from Abuse in the Financial Marketplace (2017)

Consumer Federation of America:  Impact of the Financial CHOICE Act on Military Families (2017)

Student Veterans of America: National Veteran Education Success Tracker: A Report on the Academic Success of Student Veterans Using the Post-9/11 GI Bill (2017)

The Century Foundation Vietnam Vets and a New Student Loan Program Bring New College Scams:  The Cycle of Scandal at For-Profit Colleges (2017)

The Century Foundation Truman, Eisenhower, and the First GI Bill Scandal (2017)

The Century Foundation The Reagan Administration's Campaign to Rein in Predatory For-Profit Colleges (2017)

The Century Foundation When George H. W. Bush "Cracked Down" on Abuses at For-Profit Colleges (2017)

CNA for the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense, Personnel and Readiness: Population Representation in the Military Services: Fiscal Year 2015 Summary Report (2017)

Brookings Institution:  How Much Do For-Profit Colleges Rely on Federal Funds? (2017)

Center for American Progress, ACICS Must Go (2016)

Yale Law School: VA's Failure to Protect Veterans from Deceptive College Recruiting Practices (2016)

Maryland Consumer Rights Coalition: Making The Grade?: An Analysis of For-Profit and Career Schools in Maryland (2016) 

Benjamin Castleman, Francis Murphy, and William Skimmyhorn, Marching Across Generations? An Analysis of the Benefits Transfer Provision of the Post-9/11 GI Bill (2016)

The Century Foundation: Covert For-Profit: How College Owners Escape Oversight through a Regulatory Blind Spot (2015)

Brookings Institution:  A Crisis in Student Loans?  How Changes in the Characteristics of Borrowers and in the Institutions They Attended Contributed to Rising Loan Defaults (Fall 2015)

Andrew Barr, Journal of Human Resources: From the Battlefield to the Schoolyard:  The Short-Term Impact of the Post-9/11 GI Bill (2015)

Irene Coons, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Use of Standardized Tests Within Nursing Education Programs (2014)

National Bureau of Economic Research Evaluating Student Outcomes at For-Profit Colleges (2012)

David Deming, Claudia Goldin & Lawrence Katz, The For-Profit Post-Secondary School Sector: Nimble Critters or Agile Predators? American Economic Association Journal of Economic Perspectives (2012)

Center for American Progress, Profiting from Healthcare: The Role of For-Profit Schools in Training the Health Care Workforce (2011)

Curtis J. Simon, Sebastian Negrusa, and John T. Warner, Economic Inquiry: Educational Benefits and Military Service: An Analysis of Enlistment, Reenlistment, and Veterans’ Benefit Usage 1991-2005 (2010)

Suzanne Mettler, Soldiers to Citizens: The G.I. Bill and the Making of the Greatest Generation (2007)

John Bound and Sarah Turner, Journal of Labor Economics: Going to War and Going to College: Did World War II and the GI Bill Increase Educational Attainment for Returning Veterans? (2002)